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(See resistance testing for an explanation of what it means for the virus to be resistant.)If an HIV-positive person is taking antiretroviral medicine and has an undetectable viral load, the risk of infecting someone else through sex is much lower than it would be if the viral load is high, but other factors (such as whether one of the partners has an STD) may increase the risk of HIV transmission.

Studies are going on right now to try to answer questions about HIV reinfection, but in the meantime, HIV-infected individuals will have to decide whether they are willing to take the risk not only of becoming superinfected, but also of possibly superinfecting someone else.

This is referred to as a second infection or "superinfection." It is not yet clear how often superinfection occurs, but it appears to be quite uncommon.

A person whose first HIV infection is relatively recent may be more susceptible to infection with a second strain.

This is also a time when many people have some of their first relationships.